Proofs and Fundamentals

Proofs and Fundamentals Author Ethan D. Bloch
ISBN-10 9781461221302
Release 2013-12-01
Pages 424
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The aim of this book is to help students write mathematics better. Throughout it are large exercise sets well-integrated with the text and varying appropriately from easy to hard. Basic issues are treated, and attention is given to small issues like not placing a mathematical symbol directly after a punctuation mark. And it provides many examples of what students should think and what they should write and how these two are often not the same.

Proofs and Fundamentals

Proofs and Fundamentals Author Ethan D. Bloch
ISBN-10 1441971270
Release 2011-02-15
Pages 358
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“Proofs and Fundamentals: A First Course in Abstract Mathematics” 2nd edition is designed as a "transition" course to introduce undergraduates to the writing of rigorous mathematical proofs, and to such fundamental mathematical ideas as sets, functions, relations, and cardinality. The text serves as a bridge between computational courses such as calculus, and more theoretical, proofs-oriented courses such as linear algebra, abstract algebra and real analysis. This 3-part work carefully balances Proofs, Fundamentals, and Extras. Part 1 presents logic and basic proof techniques; Part 2 thoroughly covers fundamental material such as sets, functions and relations; and Part 3 introduces a variety of extra topics such as groups, combinatorics and sequences. A gentle, friendly style is used, in which motivation and informal discussion play a key role, and yet high standards in rigor and in writing are never compromised. New to the second edition: 1) A new section about the foundations of set theory has been added at the end of the chapter about sets. This section includes a very informal discussion of the Zermelo– Fraenkel Axioms for set theory. We do not make use of these axioms subsequently in the text, but it is valuable for any mathematician to be aware that an axiomatic basis for set theory exists. Also included in this new section is a slightly expanded discussion of the Axiom of Choice, and new discussion of Zorn's Lemma, which is used later in the text. 2) The chapter about the cardinality of sets has been rearranged and expanded. There is a new section at the start of the chapter that summarizes various properties of the set of natural numbers; these properties play important roles subsequently in the chapter. The sections on induction and recursion have been slightly expanded, and have been relocated to an earlier place in the chapter (following the new section), both because they are more concrete than the material found in the other sections of the chapter, and because ideas from the sections on induction and recursion are used in the other sections. Next comes the section on the cardinality of sets (which was originally the first section of the chapter); this section gained proofs of the Schroeder–Bernstein theorem and the Trichotomy Law for Sets, and lost most of the material about finite and countable sets, which has now been moved to a new section devoted to those two types of sets. The chapter concludes with the section on the cardinality of the number systems. 3) The chapter on the construction of the natural numbers, integers and rational numbers from the Peano Postulates was removed entirely. That material was originally included to provide the needed background about the number systems, particularly for the discussion of the cardinality of sets, but it was always somewhat out of place given the level and scope of this text. The background material about the natural numbers needed for the cardinality of sets has now been summarized in a new section at the start of that chapter, making the chapter both self-contained and more accessible than it previously was. 4) The section on families of sets has been thoroughly revised, with the focus being on families of sets in general, not necessarily thought of as indexed. 5) A new section about the convergence of sequences has been added to the chapter on selected topics. This new section, which treats a topic from real analysis, adds some diversity to the chapter, which had hitherto contained selected topics of only an algebraic or combinatorial nature. 6) A new section called ``You Are the Professor'' has been added to the end of the last chapter. This new section, which includes a number of attempted proofs taken from actual homework exercises submitted by students, offers the reader the opportunity to solidify her facility for writing proofs by critiquing these submissions as if she were the instructor for the course. 7) All known errors have been corrected. 8) Many minor adjustments of wording have been made throughout the text, with the hope of improving the exposition.

Fundamentals of Mathematics

Fundamentals of Mathematics Author Bernd S. W. Schröder
ISBN-10 0470551380
Release 2010-08-16
Pages 338
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An accessible introduction to abstract mathematics with an emphasis on proof writing Addressing the importance of constructing and understanding mathematical proofs, Fundamentals of Mathematics: An Introduction to Proofs, Logic, Sets, and Numbers introduces key concepts from logic and set theory as well as the fundamental definitions of algebra to prepare readers for further study in the field of mathematics. The author supplies a seamless, hands-on presentation of number systems, utilizing key elements of logic and set theory and encouraging readers to abide by the fundamental rule that you are not allowed to use any results that you have not proved yet. The book begins with a focus on the elements of logic used in everyday mathematical language, exposing readers to standard proof methods and Russell's Paradox. Once this foundation is established, subsequent chapters explore more rigorous mathematical exposition that outlines the requisite elements of Zermelo-Fraenkel set theory and constructs the natural numbers and integers as well as rational, real, and complex numbers in a rigorous, yet accessible manner. Abstraction is introduced as a tool, and special focus is dedicated to concrete, accessible applications, such as public key encryption, that are made possible by abstract ideas. The book concludes with a self-contained proof of Abel's Theorem and an investigation of deeper set theory by introducing the Axiom of Choice, ordinal numbers, and cardinal numbers. Throughout each chapter, proofs are written in much detail with explicit indications that emphasize the main ideas and techniques of proof writing. Exercises at varied levels of mathematical development allow readers to test their understanding of the material, and a related Web site features video presentations for each topic, which can be used along with the book or independently for self-study. Classroom-tested to ensure a fluid and accessible presentation, Fundamentals of Mathematics is an excellent book for mathematics courses on proofs, logic, and set theory at the upper-undergraduate level as well as a supplement for transition courses that prepare students for the rigorous mathematical reasoning of advanced calculus, real analysis, and modern algebra. The book is also a suitable reference for professionals in all areas of mathematics education who are interested in mathematical proofs and the foundation upon which all mathematics is built.

Writing Proofs in Analysis

Writing Proofs in Analysis Author Jonathan M. Kane
ISBN-10 9783319309675
Release 2016-05-28
Pages 347
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This is a textbook on proof writing in the area of analysis, balancing a survey of the core concepts of mathematical proof with a tight, rigorous examination of the specific tools needed for an understanding of analysis. Instead of the standard "transition" approach to teaching proofs, wherein students are taught fundamentals of logic, given some common proof strategies such as mathematical induction, and presented with a series of well-written proofs to mimic, this textbook teaches what a student needs to be thinking about when trying to construct a proof. Covering the fundamentals of analysis sufficient for a typical beginning Real Analysis course, it never loses sight of the fact that its primary focus is about proof writing skills. This book aims to give the student precise training in the writing of proofs by explaining exactly what elements make up a correct proof, how one goes about constructing an acceptable proof, and, by learning to recognize a correct proof, how to avoid writing incorrect proofs. To this end, all proofs presented in this text are preceded by detailed explanations describing the thought process one goes through when constructing the proof. Over 150 example proofs, templates, and axioms are presented alongside full-color diagrams to elucidate the topics at hand.

Book of Proof

Book of Proof Author Richard H. Hammack
ISBN-10 0989472116
Release 2016-01-01
Pages 314
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This book is an introduction to the language and standard proof methods of mathematics. It is a bridge from the computational courses (such as calculus or differential equations) that students typically encounter in their first year of college to a more abstract outlook. It lays a foundation for more theoretical courses such as topology, analysis and abstract algebra. Although it may be more meaningful to the student who has had some calculus, there is really no prerequisite other than a measure of mathematical maturity.

Fundamentals of Algebraic Specification 1

Fundamentals of Algebraic Specification 1 Author Hartmut Ehrig
ISBN-10 9783642699627
Release 2012-12-06
Pages 321
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The aim of this book is to present fundamentals of algebraic specifications with respect to the following three aspects: fundamentals in the sense of a carefully motivated introduction to algebraic specifications, which is easy to understand for computer scientists and mathematicians; fundamentals in the sense of mathematical theories which are the basis for precise definitions, constructions, results, and correctness proofs; and fundamentals in the sense of concepts, which are introduced on a conceptual level and formalized in mathematical terms. The book is equally suitableas a text book for graduate courses and as a reference for researchers and system developers.

The Real Numbers and Real Analysis

The Real Numbers and Real Analysis Author Ethan D. Bloch
ISBN-10 9780387721767
Release 2011-05-27
Pages 553
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This rigorous, detailed introduction to real analysis presents the fundamentals clearly and includes definitions, theorems and proofs. Mirroring the structure of standard calculus courses makes it especially accessible to university students of mathematics.

Foundations of Abstract Mathematics

Foundations of Abstract Mathematics Author David C. Kurtz
ISBN-10 STANFORD:36105129676024
Release 1992
Pages 190
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This text is designed for the average to strong mathematics major taking a course called Transition to Higher Mathematics, Introduction to Proofs, or Fundamentals of Mathematics. It provides a transition to topics covered in advanced mathematics and covers logic, proofs and sets and emphasizes two important mathematical activities - finding examples of objects with specified properties and writing proofs.

A First Course in Geometric Topology and Differential Geometry

A First Course in Geometric Topology and Differential Geometry Author Ethan D. Bloch
ISBN-10 0817638407
Release 1997
Pages 421
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The uniqueness of this text in combining geometric topology and differential geometry lies in its unifying thread: the notion of a surface. With numerous illustrations, exercises and examples, the student comes to understand the relationship of the modern abstract approach to geometric intuition. The text is kept at a concrete level, avoiding unnecessary abstractions, yet never sacrificing mathematical rigor. The book includes topics not usually found in a single book at this level.

The Nuts and Bolts of Proofs

The Nuts and Bolts of Proofs Author Antonella Cupillari
ISBN-10 9780080537900
Release 2005-09-08
Pages 192
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The Nuts and Bolts of Proof instructs students on the basic logic of mathematical proofs, showing how and why proofs of mathematical statements work. It provides them with techniques they can use to gain an inside view of the subject, reach other results, remember results more easily, or rederive them if the results are forgotten.A flow chart graphically demonstrates the basic steps in the construction of any proof and numerous examples illustrate the method and detail necessary to prove various kinds of theorems. * The "List of Symbols" has been extended. * Set Theory section has been strengthened with more examples and exercises. * Addition of "A Collection of Proofs"

Introduction to Mathematical Structures and Proofs

Introduction to Mathematical Structures and Proofs Author Larry J. Gerstein
ISBN-10 9781461442653
Release 2012-06-05
Pages 401
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As a student moves from basic calculus courses into upper-division courses in linear and abstract algebra, real and complex analysis, number theory, topology, and so on, a "bridge" course can help ensure a smooth transition. Introduction to Mathematical Structures and Proofs is a textbook intended for such a course, or for self-study. This book introduces an array of fundamental mathematical structures. It also explores the delicate balance of intuition and rigor—and the flexible thinking—required to prove a nontrivial result. In short, this book seeks to enhance the mathematical maturity of the reader. The new material in this second edition includes a section on graph theory, several new sections on number theory (including primitive roots, with an application to card-shuffling), and a brief introduction to the complex numbers (including a section on the arithmetic of the Gaussian integers). Solutions for even numbered exercises are available on for instructors adopting the text for a course.

Fundamentals of Nonparametric Bayesian Inference

Fundamentals of Nonparametric Bayesian Inference Author Subhashis Ghosal
ISBN-10 9780521878265
Release 2017-06-26
Pages 670
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Bayesian nonparametrics comes of age with this landmark text synthesizing theory, methodology and computation.

The Joy of Sets

The Joy of Sets Author Keith Devlin
ISBN-10 9781461209034
Release 2012-12-06
Pages 194
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This text covers the parts of contemporary set theory relevant to other areas of pure mathematics. After a review of "naïve" set theory, it develops the Zermelo-Fraenkel axioms of the theory before discussing the ordinal and cardinal numbers. It then delves into contemporary set theory, covering such topics as the Borel hierarchy and Lebesgue measure. A final chapter presents an alternative conception of set theory useful in computer science.

Conjecture and Proof

Conjecture and Proof Author Miklós Laczkovich
ISBN-10 0883857227
Release 2001-01-01
Pages 118
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How to prove interesting and deep mathematical results from first principles, with exercises.

Fundamentals of Advanced Mathematics 1

Fundamentals of Advanced Mathematics 1 Author Henri Bourles
ISBN-10 9780081021125
Release 2017-07-10
Pages 268
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This precis, comprised of three volumes, of which this book is the first, exposes the mathematical elements which make up the foundations of a number of contemporary scientific methods: modern theory on systems, physics and engineering. This first volume focuses primarily on algebraic questions: categories and functors, groups, rings, modules and algebra. Notions are introduced in a general framework and then studied in the context of commutative and homological algebra; their application in algebraic topology and geometry is therefore developed. These notions play an essential role in algebraic analysis (analytico-algebraic systems theory of ordinary or partial linear differential equations). The book concludes with a study of modules over the main types of rings, the rational canonical form of matrices, the (commutative) theory of elemental divisors and their application in systems of linear differential equations with constant coefficients. Part of the New Mathematical Methods, Systems, and Applications series Presents the notions, results, and proofs necessary to understand and master the various topics Provides a unified notation, making the task easier for the reader. Includes several summaries of mathematics for engineers

Fundamentals of Cryptology

Fundamentals of Cryptology Author Henk C.A. van Tilborg
ISBN-10 9780306470530
Release 2006-04-18
Pages 492
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The protection of sensitive information against unauthorized access or fraudulent changes has been of prime concern throughout the centuries. Modern communication techniques, using computers connected through networks, make all data even more vulnerable for these threats. Also, new issues have come up that were not relevant before, e. g. how to add a (digital) signature to an electronic document in such a way that the signer can not deny later on that the document was signed by him/her. Cryptology addresses the above issues. It is at the foundation of all information security. The techniques employed to this end have become increasingly mathematical of nature. This book serves as an introduction to modern cryptographic methods. After a brief survey of classical cryptosystems, it concentrates on three main areas. First of all, stream ciphers and block ciphers are discussed. These systems have extremely fast implementations, but sender and receiver have to share a secret key. Public key cryptosystems (the second main area) make it possible to protect data without a prearranged key. Their security is based on intractable mathematical problems, like the factorization of large numbers. The remaining chapters cover a variety of topics, such as zero-knowledge proofs, secret sharing schemes and authentication codes. Two appendices explain all mathematical prerequisites in great detail. One is on elementary number theory (Euclid's Algorithm, the Chinese Remainder Theorem, quadratic residues, inversion formulas, and continued fractions). The other appendix gives a thorough introduction to finite fields and their algebraic structure.

Fundamentals of Mathematics An Introduction to Proofs Logic Sets and Numbers

Fundamentals of Mathematics  An Introduction to Proofs  Logic  Sets  and Numbers Author CTI Reviews
ISBN-10 9781467211345
Release 2016-10-16
Pages 62
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Facts101 is your complete guide to Fundamentals of Mathematics, An Introduction to Proofs, Logic, Sets, and Numbers. In this book, you will learn topics such as as those in your book plus much more. With key features such as key terms, people and places, Facts101 gives you all the information you need to prepare for your next exam. Our practice tests are specific to the textbook and we have designed tools to make the most of your limited study time.