Molecular Microbiology of Heavy Metals

Molecular Microbiology of Heavy Metals Author Dietrich H. Nies
ISBN-10 9783540697718
Release 2007-03-24
Pages 460
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This book covers allocation of metals in cells, metal transporter, storage and metalloregulatory proteins, cellular responses to metal ion stress, transcription of genes involved in metal ion homeostasis, uptake of essential metals, metal efflux and other detoxification mechanisms. The book also discusses metal bioreporters for the nanomolar range of concentration and tools to address the metallome. In addition, coverage details specific metals.



Ecological Biochemistry

Ecological Biochemistry Author Gerd-Joachim Krauss
ISBN-10 9783527686001
Release 2014-08-29
Pages 440
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The first stand-alone textbook for at least ten years on this increasingly hot topic in times of global climate change and sustainability in ecosystems. Ecological biochemistry refers to the interaction of organisms with their abiotic environment and other organisms by chemical means. Biotic and abiotic factors determine the biochemical flexibility of organisms, which otherwise easily adapt to environmental changes by altering their metabolism. Sessile plants, in particular, have evolved intricate biochemical response mechanisms to fit into a changing environment. This book covers the chemistry behind these interactions, bottom up from the atomic to the system's level. An introductory part explains the physico-chemical basis and biochemical roots of living cells, leading to secondary metabolites as crucial bridges between organisms and the respective ecosystem. The focus then shifts to the biochemical interactions of plants, fungi and bacteria within terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems with the aim of linking biochemical insights to ecological research, also in human-influenced habitats. A section is devoted to methodology, which allows network-based analyses of molecular processes underlying systems phenomena. A companion website offering an extended version of the introductory chapter on Basic Biochemical Roots is available at http://www.wiley.com/go/Krauss/Nies/EcologicalBiochemistry



Microbial Megaplasmids

Microbial Megaplasmids Author Edward Schwartz
ISBN-10 3540854673
Release 2009-01-29
Pages 348
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Megaplasmids are extrachromosomal genetic elements in the size range of 100 kb and larger. They are found in physiologically and phylogenetically diverse groups of bacteria and archaea. By definition, megaplasmids are not essential for the viability of their hosts under all growth conditions, but paradoxically many megaplasmids carry the genetic information for the defining and characteristic traits of the organism in which they reside. Microbial Megaplasmids reviews our knowledge of the extensively studied representatives, such as the catabolic plasmids of the pseudomonads, the rhizobial Sym plasmids, the Ti plasmids of the genus Agrobacterium and the giant enterobacterial virulence plasmids. It also presents snapshots of more recently discovered megaplasmids. The contribution of megaplasmids to the biology of their hosts is described, highlighting the interactions between megaplasmid and chromosomal genes.



Organohalide Respiring Bacteria

Organohalide Respiring Bacteria Author Lorenz Adrian
ISBN-10 9783662498750
Release 2016-08-17
Pages 632
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This book summarizes the current state of knowledge concerning bacteria that use halogenated organic compounds as respiratory electron acceptors. The discovery of organohalide-respiring bacteria has expanded the range of electron acceptors used for energy conservation, and serves as a prime example of how scientific discoveries are enabling innovative engineering solutions that have transformed remediation practice. Individual chapters provide in-depth background information on the discovery, isolation, phylogeny, biochemistry, genomic features, and ecology of individual organohalide-respiring genera, including Dehalococcoides, Dehalogenimonas, Dehalobacter, Desulfitobacterium and Sulfurospirillum, as well as organohalide-respiring members of the Deltaproteobacteria. The book introduces readers to the fascinating biology of organohalide-respiring bacteria, offering a valuable resource for students, engineers and practitioners alike.



Understanding the Geological and Medical Interface of Arsenic As 2012

Understanding the Geological and Medical Interface of Arsenic   As 2012 Author Jack C. Ng
ISBN-10 9780203078808
Release 2012-07-06
Pages 616
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The congress "Arsenic in the Environment" offers an international, multi- and interdisciplinary discussion platform for arsenic research aimed at practical solutions of problems with considerable social impact, as well as focusing on cutting edge and breakthrough research in physical, chemical, toxicological, medical and other specific issues on arsenic on a broader environmental realm. The congress "Arsenic in the Environment" was first organized in Mexico City (As 2006) followed by As 2008 in Valencia, Spain and As 2010 in Tainan, Taiwan. The 4th International Congress As 2012 was held in Cairns, Australia from July 22-27, 2012 entitled Understanding the Geological and Medical Interface of Arsenic. The session topics comprised: 1. Geology and hydrogeology of arsenic; 2. Medical and health issues of arsenic; 3. Remediation and policy; 4. Analytical methods for arsenic; and 5. Special topics on "Risk assessment of arsenic from mining", "Geomicrobiology of arsenic", "Geothermal arsenic", "Rice arsenic and health perspectives", "Sustainable mitigation of arsenic: from field trials to policy implications", and "Biogeochemical processes of high arsenic groundwater in inland basins" Hosting this congress in Australia was welcome and valued by the local scientific communities. Australia is a mineral rich country where mining has generated significant economic benefit to its people. Unfortunately historical mining for base metals, gold and arsenic had led to environmental contamination of arsenic. Locally produced arsenical compounds were widely used as pesticides and in timber preservation. It is known that there are several thousands of cattle- and sheep-dip sites contaminated with arsenic in Australia. However, commonly observed symptoms of chronic arsenic poisonings such as those found in endemic-blackfoot areas are seemingly absent from these types of environmental contamination due to good quality of potable water supply. Does this fall in the classic argument of "the dose makes the poison"? This congress theme of "understanding the geological and medical interface of arsenic" will advance our knowledge in minimising the risk posted by this so-called number one prioritised contaminant – arsenic.



Metal Response in Cupriavidus metallidurans

Metal Response in Cupriavidus metallidurans Author Max Mergeay
ISBN-10 9783319205946
Release 2015-07-09
Pages 89
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This book is the first volume of a two-volume set summarizing 40 years of key research findings directly related to metal-resistant Cupriavidus/Ralstonia (Betaproteobacteria). In this first volume, the historical and geographical context of these bacteria, which are mostly found in industrial and polluted environments linked to zinc and other non-ferrous metallurgy, is sketched to illustrate the interactions between bacteria and human activities and the possible evolutionary consequences on bacterial genomes especially as far as the association of metal resistance genes with mobile genetic elements is concerned. A detailed description of the response and underlying genetic determinants of type strain Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34 to a variety of metals is provided. With high level resistance to cadmium, chromate, cobalt, copper, mercury, nickel, lead and zinc mediated by well-known genes for detoxification carried by its megaplasmids pMOL28 and pMOL30. This description is complemented with the genomic context of the metal response genes in C. metallidurans CH34 with a focus on its mobilome including insertion sequence elements, transposons, integrative and conjugative elements and genomic islands. In addition, in the second volume, structural and catalytic data from bacterial primary and secondary transporters (P-ATPases, tripartite chemiosmotic cation/proton efflux systems, cation diffusion facilitators, Major Facilitator Superfamily and some minor categories) are outlined and detailed for the corresponding C. metallidurans proteins. The available three-dimensional structures of C. metallidurans proteins are reviewed in detail, including RND and membrane fusion proteins (from tripartite chemiosmotic cation/proton efflux systems), sigma and anti-sigma regulatory proteins of the cnr efflux system (resistance to cobalt and nickel) and various periplasmic proteins mainly involved in the response to copper and mercury.



Uncultivated Microorganisms

Uncultivated Microorganisms Author Slava S. Epstein
ISBN-10 3540854657
Release 2009-09-01
Pages 208
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In 1898, an Austrian microbiologist Heinrich Winterberg made a curious observation: the number of microbial cells in his samples did not match the number of colonies formed on nutrient media (Winterberg 1898). About a decade later, J. Amann qu- tified this mismatch, which turned out to be surprisingly large, with non-growing cells outnumbering the cultivable ones almost 150 times (Amann 1911). These papers signify some of the earliest steps towards the discovery of an important phenomenon known today as the Great Plate Count Anomaly (Staley and Konopka 1985). Note how early in the history of microbiology these steps were taken. Detecting the Anomaly almost certainly required the Plate. If so, then the period from 1881 to 1887, the years when Robert Koch and Petri introduced their key inventions (Koch 1881; Petri 1887), sets the earliest boundary for the discovery, which is remarkably close to the 1898 observations by H. Winterberg. Celebrating its 111th anniversary, the Great Plate Count Anomaly today is arguably the oldest unresolved microbiological phenomenon. In the years to follow, the Anomaly was repeatedly confirmed by all microb- logists who cared to compare the cell count in the inoculum to the colony count in the Petri dish (cf., Cholodny 1929; Butkevich 1932; Butkevich and Butkevich 1936). By mid-century, the remarkable difference between the two counts became a universally recognized phenomenon, acknowledged by several classics of the time (Waksman and Hotchkiss 1937; ZoBell 1946; Jannasch and Jones 1959).



Biodegradative Bacteria

Biodegradative Bacteria Author Hideaki Nojiri
ISBN-10 9784431545200
Release 2013-11-01
Pages 358
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Biodegradative Bacteria highlights the novel nature of bacterial cell functions in the field of biodegradation by putting them into three parts: (1) Genetic and genomic systems, (2) Degradative enzyme systems, and (3) Bacterial behavior in natural environmental systems. The first part of the book includes cell functions as degradative machinery, genome systems for effective degradation, and the evolution of degradative systems by mobile genetic elements. The second part deals with the structure, function, evolution, diversity, and application of degradative and related enzymes. The third part presents cell or genomic behaviors of biodegradative bacteria in natural ecosystems. Bacterial metabolic capacity, which plays an important role in the global material cycle, contributes significantly to the buffering capacity for the huge and unintended release of various chemicals. Recently, however, the prosperity and globalization of material civilization has led not only to severe local contamination by hazardous chemicals, but also to continuous increment of contaminant concentrations worldwide. To solve such urgent global issues, bacterial functions that are involved in biodegradation of hazardous chemicals have been analyzed. The term “biodegradative bacteria” refers to those bacteria that have the ability to degrade such xenobiotic (man-made) and/or hazardous chemicals. Analyses of biodegradative bacteria include diverse areas of study, such as genetics, enzymology, genomics, cell physiology, ecology, and evolutionary biology. In other words, the targets investigated in research on biodegradative bacteria include single molecules, single cell systems, bacterial consortia (interaction with surrounding microorganisms), and interaction with surrounding biotic and abiotic materials. Such complexity makes the research on biodegradative bacteria difficult but quite interesting.



Beneficial Microorganisms in Agriculture Aquaculture and Other Areas

Beneficial Microorganisms in Agriculture  Aquaculture and Other Areas Author Min-Tze Liong
ISBN-10 9783319231839
Release 2015-12-11
Pages 220
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This book focuses on the use of microorganisms in relation to agriculture, aquaculture and related fields, ranging from biofertilizers to poultry production. The latest innovations are also included to provide insights into the unlimited potentials of microorganisms in these areas. Individual chapters explore topics such as probiotics in poultry, biopurification of wastewater, converting agrowastes into value-added applications and products, rice cultivation, surfactants and bacteriocin as biopreservatives, bioplastics, crop productivity, biofloc, and the production of natural antibiotics. This volume will be of particular interest to scientists, policymakers and industrial practitioners working in the fields of agriculture, aquaculture and public health.



Biosurfactants

Biosurfactants Author Gloria Soberón-Chávez
ISBN-10 364214490X
Release 2010-09-29
Pages 216
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Biosurfactants, tensio-active compounds produced by living cells, are now gaining increasing interest due to their potential applications in many different industrial areas in which to date almost exclusively synthetic surfactants have been used. Their unique structures and characteristics are just starting to be appreciated. In addition, biosurfactants are considered to be environmentally “friendly,” relatively non-toxic and biodegradable. This Microbiology Monographs volume deals with the most recent advances in the field of microbial biosurfactants, such as rhamnolipids, serrawettins, trehalolipids, mannosylerythritol lipids, sophorolipids, surfactin and other lipopeptides. Each chapter reviews the characteristics of an individual biosurfactant including the physicochemical properties, the chemical structures, the role in the physiology of the producing microbes, the biosynthetic pathways, the genetic regulation, and the potential biotechnological applications.



Cell Biology of Metals and Nutrients

Cell Biology of Metals and Nutrients Author Rüdiger Hell
ISBN-10 3642106137
Release 2010-03-10
Pages 306
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Plants are composed of 17 essential and at least 5 beneficial elements, and these must be taken up as metal or nutrient ions to allow for growth and cell division. Much effort has been devoted to studying the physiology and biochemistry of metals and nutrients in plants. The aspect of cell biology, however, is an emerging new field and much needs to be learned about sensing, long-distance communication within plants, and cellular signal transduction chains in response to environmental stress. Cellular malfunction and consequently disease result when any of the key steps in metal and nutrient homeostasis are disrupted. Working together, leading experts in their respective fields provide a new concept that reaches beyond plant nutrition and plasmalemma transport into cellular physiology. Each chapter contains basic information on uptake, physiological function, deficiency and toxicity syndromes, long-distance and intracellular transport. The discussion is devoted to metals and nutrients where recent progress has been made and highlights the aspects of homeostasis and sensing, signaling and regulation, drawing parallels to other organisms including humans. Finally, the book identifies gaps in our current knowledge and lays out future research directions.



Environmental Microbiology

Environmental Microbiology Author J. F. T. Spencer
ISBN-10 9781592597659
Release 2004
Pages 423
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A collection of readily reproducible techniques for determining most of the important factors governing microorganisms and their habitats. Presented in step-by-step detail, these cutting-edge methods range from those for the study of marine organisms, to those for investigating microorganisms occurring in groundwater, to the biodiversity of yeasts found in remote environments. The novel protocols for studying fermented milks are significant for investigators concerned with milk as an item of food for infants, small children, and even adults. Additional methods for the recovery and determination of nucleic acids and other compounds affecting, and affected by, microorganisms are given for certain enzymes produced by plant pathogens and for obtaining microbial species tolerant of such inhibitors as heavy metals.



Microbial Stress Tolerance for Biofuels

Microbial Stress Tolerance for Biofuels Author Zonglin Lewis Liu
ISBN-10 3642214673
Release 2011-09-15
Pages 310
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The development of sustainable and renewable biofuels is attracting growing interest. It is vital to develop robust microbial strains for biocatalysts that are able to function under multiple stress conditions. This Microbiology Monograph provides an overview of methods for studying microbial stress tolerance for biofuels applications using a systems biology approach. Topics covered range from mechanisms to methodology for yeast and bacteria, including the genomics of yeast tolerance and detoxification; genetics and regulation of glycogen and trehalose metabolism; programmed cell death; high gravity fermentations; ethanol tolerance; improving biomass sugar utilization by engineered Saccharomyces; the genomics on tolerance of Zymomonas mobilis; microbial solvent tolerance; control of stress tolerance in bacterial host organisms; metabolomics for ethanologenic yeast; automated proteomics work cell systems for strain improvement; and unification of gene expression data for comparable analyses under stress conditions.



Microbial Models From Environmental to Industrial Sustainability

Microbial Models  From Environmental to Industrial Sustainability Author Susana Castro-Sowinski
ISBN-10 9789811025556
Release 2016-11-17
Pages 349
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This book describes selected microbial genera from the perspective of their environmentally and commercially sustainable use. By focusing on their physiology and metabolism and combining historical information with the latest developments, it presents a multidisciplinary portrait of microbial sustainability. The chapters provide readers descriptions of each genus in the form of microbial models that move us closer to the goal of sustainability; selected chapters also include worldwide market information and lists of corresponding patents.



Inclusions in Prokaryotes

Inclusions in Prokaryotes Author Jessup M. Shively
ISBN-10 9783540337744
Release 2006-05-04
Pages 349
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The new series "Microbiology Monographs" begins with two volumes on intracellular components in prokaryotes. In this first volume, "Inclusions in Prokaryotes", the components, labeled inclusions, are defined as discrete bodies resulting from synthesis of a metabolic product. Research on the biosynthesis and reutilization of the accumulated materials is still in progress, and interest in the inclusions is growing. This comprehensive volume provides historical background and comprehensive reviews of eight well-known prokaryotic inclusions.



Probiotics

Probiotics Author Min-Tze Liong
ISBN-10 364220838X
Release 2011-07-28
Pages 330
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Probiotic microorganisms have a long history of use, and their health benefits for hosts are well documented. This Microbiology Monographs volume provides an overview of the current knowledge and applications of probiotics. Reviews cover the biology and probiotic potential of the thoroughly studied prokaryotic genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, several eukaryotic microorganisms, probiotic strain characterization, and the analytical methods (such as FISH, microarray, and high throughput sequencing) required for their study. Further chapters describe the positive effects of probiotics on malabsorption disorders such as diarrhea and lactose intolerance, and document the clinical evidence of benefits in treating allergies and lung emphysema, and in dermatological applications. Also addresses are topics such as genetically engineered strains, new carriers for probiotics, protection techniques, challenges of health claims, safety aspects, and future market trends.



Phytoremediation and Rhizoremediation

Phytoremediation and Rhizoremediation Author Martina Mackova
ISBN-10 9781402049996
Release 2006-09-19
Pages 300
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This volume represents an excellent description of the hottest topics in the field of phyto- and rhizoremediation. The book shows especially the importance of cooperation between plant and microorganisms, there is practically no phytoremediation without rhizoremediation. Newest approaches based on methods of molecular biology and genetic engineering are described, as well as plant science achievements.