Methods in Gut Microbial Ecology for Ruminants

Methods in Gut Microbial Ecology for Ruminants Author Harinder P.S. Makkar
ISBN-10 9781402037917
Release 2006-02-23
Pages 226
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Asaresultofvarioushumanactivities,suchasincreaseinhumanpopulation,decrease in arable land due to soil degradation, urbanization, industrialization and associated increase in the demand for livestock products, dramatic changes are occurring in the global ruminant livestock sector. These changes includeshift inthesize of regional livestock populations and in the types of management and feeding systems under which ruminant livestock are held, and increased demand of a wider range of quality attributes from animal agriculture, not just of the products themselves but also of the methods used in their production. The livestock sector will need to respond to newchallengesofincreasinglivestockproductivitywhileprotectingenvironmentand human health and conservingbiodiversity and natural resources. The micro-organisms in the digestive tracts of ruminant livestock have a profound in?uence on the conversion offeedinto end products, which can impact on the- imal and theenvironment. As the livestock sector grows particularly in developing countries, there will be an increasing need to understand these processes for b- ter management and use ofbothfeed and other natural resources that underpinthe development of sustainable feeding systems.



Advances in Laminitis Part I An Issue of Veterinary Clinics Equine Practice

Advances in Laminitis  Part I  An Issue of Veterinary Clinics  Equine Practice Author Christopher C. Pollitt
ISBN-10 9781455700752
Release 2010-05-10
Pages 248
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Articles include: The Anatomy and Physiology of the Lamellar, Dermal-Epidermal Interface, Carbohydrate Alimentary Overload Laminitis, Events in the Hindgut, Therapeutic Hypothermia (cryotherapy) to Prevent and Treat Acute Laminitis, Acute Laminits: Supportive Medical Therapy, First Aid for the Foot: Therapeutic and Mechanical Support, Serial Venography after Carbohydrate-Induced Laminitis, Venography and Its Clinical Application in North America, Chronic Laminitis: Strategic Hoof Wall Resection, The Laminar Wedge of Chronic Laminitis, Lysis of the Distal Phalanx in Chronic Laminitis, Chronic Laminitis Foot Support: Clogs, Homecare for the Chronic Laminitis Case, The Pharmacological Basis for the Treatment of Developmental and Acute Laminitis, and Black Walnut Extract Laminitis: An Inflammatory Model.



Nutritional Ecology of the Ruminant

Nutritional Ecology of the Ruminant Author Peter J. Van Soest
ISBN-10 080142772X
Release 1994
Pages 476
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This monumental text-reference places in clear persepctive the importance of nutritional assessments to the ecology and biology of ruminants and other nonruminant herbivorous mammals. Now extensively revised and significantly expanded, it reflects the changes and growth in ruminant nutrition and related ecology since 1982.Among the subjects Peter J. Van Soest covers are nutritional constraints, mineral nutrition, rumen fermentation, microbial ecology, utilization of fibrous carbohydrates, application of ruminant precepts to fermentive digestion in nonruminants, as well as taxonomy, evolution, nonruminant competitors, gastrointestinal anatomies, feeding behavior, and problems fo animal size. He also discusses methods of evaluation, nutritive value, physical struture and chemical composition of feeds, forages, and broses, the effects of lignification, and ecology of plant self-protection, in addition to metabolism of energy, protein, lipids, control of feed intake, mathematical models of animal function, digestive flow, and net energy.Van Soest has introduced a number of changes in this edition, including new illustrations and tables. He places nutritional studies in historical context to show not only the effectiveness of nutritional approaches but also why nutrition is of fundamental importance to issues of world conservation. He has extended precepts of ruminant nutritional ecology to such distant adaptations as the giant panda and streamlined conceptual issues in a clearer logical progression, with emphasis on mechanistic causal interrelationships.Peter J. Van Soest is Professor of Animal Nutrition in the Department of Animal Science and the Division of Nutritional Sciences at the New York State College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Cornell University.



Microbial Ecology in Growing Animals

Microbial Ecology in Growing Animals Author W. H. Holzapfel
ISBN-10 9780444509260
Release 2005
Pages 504
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"Each entry sets the scene for aspects of microbial interactions in the gastrointestinal tract describing previous work in the field, how this area of work is contributing to scientific knowledge, and the potential of this research for the future. This volume does not seek to address these themes in all domesticated animals or in the models systems used to support gastrointestinal research. However we have selected animals, and in some cases non-typical systems, which have contributed to our understanding of the microbial ecology of the growing animal."--Jacket.



Genetic Engineering of Mesenchymal Stem Cells

Genetic Engineering of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Author Jan A. Nolta
ISBN-10 9781402039591
Release 2006-08-29
Pages 170
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MSC (mesenchymal stem cells) have been reported to initiate revascularization after injury, to facilitate engraftment of blood-forming stem cells, and to reduce the incidence of graft-vs. host disease through their immune-suppressive qualities. Finally, bone marrow-derived MSC have been reported to home to areas of solid tumor revascularization, and thus may be used as delivery vehicles to target ablative agents into dividing tumor cells. Recently the characteristics of human MSC from adipose (fat) tissue have also been identified. The possibility of repairing tissues, speeding stem cell engraftment, and targeting solid tumors for specific killing, using MSC easily harvested from bone marrow, or better yet, from unwanted fat tissue, holds broad appeal, and is an intriguing possibility that could have dramatic effect on health care. This book has information on how to isolate, grow, and characterize MSC from marrow and fat, and gives important insight into how these cells may be used for gene delivery and cellular therapies in the future. Updates on emerging clinical trials are given.



Can J Microbiol

Can J Microbiol Author
ISBN-10 MINN:31951P009703494
Release 2011
Pages
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Can J Microbiol has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Can J Microbiol also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Can J Microbiol book for free.



Gastrointestinal Microbiology

Gastrointestinal Microbiology Author Roderick Mackie
ISBN-10 9781461541110
Release 2012-12-06
Pages 658
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Extremely diverse and complicated bacterial and protozoan populations inhabit the rumen and intestinal tract of animals, and there is a delicate balance among the individual populations within this complex microbial community. This authoritative edited volume, the first in a two-volume set, reviews the gut environment and the fermentations taking place in animal digestive tracts. It is an essential source of reference for microbial ecologists and physiologists, medical microbiologists and gastroenterologists, biochemists, nutritionists, veterinarians and animal scientists, and wildlife ecologists.



Estimation of Microbial Protein Supply in Ruminants Using Urinary Purine Derivatives

Estimation of Microbial Protein Supply in Ruminants Using Urinary Purine Derivatives Author Harinder P.S. Makkar
ISBN-10 9781402028441
Release 2013-06-05
Pages 212
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The Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture has a long history of coordinating isotope aided research projects for improving animal productivity in developing countries. These projects have focused on enhancing the efficiency of animal production through better use of locally available feed resources and those that do not compete with human food. As a part of these efforts, the Joint Division has been actively involved in developing and simplifying approaches for measuring microbial protein supply to ruminant livestock. The contribution of microbial protein in meeting the overall requirement for protein in ruminants is significant, but understanding the contribution of microbial protein to the nutrition of ruminant livestock has been hampered by the lack of simple and accurate methods for measuring microbial protein production in vivo. A Consultants’ Meeting was held in 1995 in Vienna to explore the feasibility of using nuclear and related techniques to develop and validate new approaches for measuring microbial protein supply in ruminant animals. Based on the available information, the consultants considered that the purine derivative excretion method, which is non-invasive and both simple to use and inexpensive compared with other available methods, had the potential for use in developing countries. However, development of models for various animal species and breeds and their validation were required before this technique could be advocated for use.



Applied and Environmental Microbiology

Applied and Environmental Microbiology Author
ISBN-10 NWU:35558005649633
Release 2007
Pages
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Applied and Environmental Microbiology has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Applied and Environmental Microbiology also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Applied and Environmental Microbiology book for free.



Handbook of Molecular Microbial Ecology II

Handbook of Molecular Microbial Ecology II Author Frans J. de Bruijn
ISBN-10 9780470647196
Release 2011-09-27
Pages 609
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"Handbook of Molecular Microbial Ecology I: Metagenomics and Complementary Approaches is the first comprehensive reference covering the various metagenomics in a large variety of habitats, which could not previously have been analysed without metagenomic methodology. This Volume includes topics such as species designations in microbiology, metagenomics, consortia and databases, bioinformatics, microarrays, and other metagenomics applications. This reference is ideal for researchers in metagenomics, microbiology, environmental microbiology, those working on the Human Microbiome Project, microbial geneticists, molecular microbiology, and bioinformatics"--



Quantification of Tannins in Tree and Shrub Foliage

Quantification of Tannins in Tree and Shrub Foliage Author Harinder P.S. Makkar
ISBN-10 9789401702737
Release 2013-04-17
Pages 102
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Here is the most complete guide available for the analysis of tannins. A battery of tannin methodologies is presented in a simple, clear and easy-to-understand manner. This unique guide covers chemical, biological and radio isotopic tannin assays. Comprehensive step-by-step protocols are presented for each method. The protocols enable non-specialists and specialists alike to implement the methods easily in the laboratory. It is an ideal laboratory manual for research scientists, graduate students, and laboratory personnel working in the fields of animal nutrition, soil nutrient management, wild life-plant interactions, and plant breeding.



Botrytis Biology Pathology and Control

Botrytis  Biology  Pathology and Control Author Y. Elad
ISBN-10 1402065868
Release 2007-10-26
Pages 428
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The book is the result of intensive work of 43 authors, all of them leading scientists in the Botrytis sciences. Each chapter describes a particular aspect of fungal biology and its impact on disease processes and host response. New technologies have arisen that when applied to long-standing problems or to test new hypotheses have been most rewarding and many of these are covered in this book. The chapters are cross linked so that readers can follow associated material.



Integrative Wildlife Nutrition

Integrative Wildlife Nutrition Author Perry S. Barboza
ISBN-10 9783540878858
Release 2008-12-28
Pages 342
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Nutrition spans a wide range of mechanisms from acquisition of food to digestion, absorption and retention of energy substrates, water and other nutrients. Nutritional principles have been applied to improving individual health, athletic performance and longevity of humans and of their companion animals, and to maximizing agricultural efficiency by manipulating reproduction or growth of tissues such as muscle, hair or milk in livestock. Comparative nutrition borrows from these tra- tional approaches by applying similar techniques to studies of ecology and physiology of wildlife. Comparative approaches to nutrition integrate several levels of organization because the acquisition and flow of energy and nutrients connect individuals to populations, populations to communities, and communities to ecosystems. Integrative Wildlife Nutrition connects behavioral, morphological and biochemical traits of animals to the life history of species and thus the dynamics of populations. An integrated approach to nutrition provides a practical framework for understanding the interactions between food resources and wildlife popu- tions and for managing the harvest of abundant species and the conservation of threatened populations. This book is for students and professionals in animal physiology and ecology, conservation biology and wildlife management. It is based on our lectures, dem- strations and practical classes taught in the USA, Canada and Australia over the last three decades. Instructors can use Integrative Wildlife Nutrition as a text in wildlife and conservation biology programs, and as a reference source for related courses in wildlife ecology.



Rumen Microbiology From Evolution to Revolution

Rumen Microbiology  From Evolution to Revolution Author Anil Kumar Puniya
ISBN-10 9788132224013
Release 2015-07-11
Pages 379
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This book offers an in-depth description of different groups of microbes (i.e. bacteria, protozoa, fungi and viruses) that exist in the rumen microbial community, and offers an overview of rumen microbiology, the rumen microbial ecosystem of domesticated ruminants, and rumen microbial diversity. It provides the latest concepts on rumen microbiology for scholars, researchers and teachers of animal and veterinary sciences. With this goal in mind, throughout the text we focus on specific areas related to the biology and complex interactions of the microbes in rumen, integrating significant key issues in each respective area. We also discuss rumen manipulation with plant secondary metabolites, microbial feed additives, utilization of organic acids, selective inhibition of harmful rumen microbes, and ‘omics’ approaches to manipulating rumen microbial functions. A section on the exploration and exploitation of rumen microbes addresses topics including the current state of knowledge on rumen metagenomics, rumen: an underutilized niche for industrially important enzymes and ruminal fermentations to produce fuels. We next turn our attention to commercial applications of rumen microbial enzymes and to the molecular characterization of euryarcheal communities within an anaerobic digester. A section on intestinal disorders and rumen microbes covers acidosis in cattle, urea/ ammonia metabolism in the rumen and nitrate/ nitrite toxicity in ruminant diets. Last, the future prospects of rumen microbiology are examined, based on the latest developments in this area. In summary, the book offers a highly systematic collection of essential content on rumen microbiology.



The Rumen Microbial Ecosystem

The Rumen Microbial Ecosystem Author P.N. Hobson
ISBN-10 9789400914537
Release 2012-12-06
Pages 719
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The Preface to the first edition of this book explained the reasons for the publication of a comprehensive text on the rumen and rumen microbes in 1988. The microbes of the ruminant's forestomach and those in related organs in other animals and birds provide the means by which herbivorous animals can digest and obtain nutriment from vegetation. In turn, humans have relied, and still do rely, on herbivores for much of their food, clothing and motive power. Herbivores also form the food of carnivorous animals and birds in the wild. The importance of the rumen microorganisms is thus apparent. But, while a knowledge of rumen organisms is not strictly neces sary for the normal, practical feeding of farm animals, in recent years there has been much more emphasis on increasing the productivity of domesti cated animals and in rearing farm animals on unusual feedstuffs. Here, a knowledge of the reactions of the rumen flora, and the limits to these reactions, can be invaluable. In addition, anaerobic rumen-type microor ganisms are found in the intestines of omnivores, including humans, and can be implicated in diseases of humans and animals. They are also found in soils and natural waters, where they playa part in causing pollution and also in reducing it, while the same organisms confined in artificial systems are essential for the purification of sewage and other polluting and toxic wastes.



Biomass and Bioenergy

Biomass and Bioenergy Author Khalid Rehman Hakeem
ISBN-10 9783319075785
Release 2014-08-22
Pages 400
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Biomass obtained from agricultural residues or forest can be used to produce different materials and bioenergy required in a modern society. As compared to other resources available, biomass is one of the most common and widespread resources in the world. Thus, biomass has the potential to provide a renewable energy source, both locally and across large areas of the world. It is estimated that the total investment in the biomass sector between 2008 and 2021 will reach the large sum of $104 billion. Presently bioenergy is the most important renewable energy option and will remain so the near and medium-term future. Previously several countries try to explore the utilization of biomass in bioenergy and composite sector. Biomass has the potential to become the world’s largest and most sustainable energy source and will be very much in demand. Bioenergy is based on resources that can be utilized on a sustainable basis all around the world and can thus serve as an effective option for the provision of energy services. In addition, the benefits accrued go beyond energy provision, creating unique opportunities for regional development. The present book will provide an up-to-date account of non-wood, forest residues, agricultural biomass (natural fibers), and energy crops together with processing, properties, and its applications to ensure biomass utilization and reuse. All aspects of biomass and bioenergy and their properties and applications will be critically re-examined. The book consists of three sections, presenting Non wood and forest products from forestry, arboriculture activities or from wood processing, agricultural biomass (natural fibers) from agricultural harvesting or processing and finally energy crops: high yield crops and grasses grown especially for energy production.​



Lignocellulose Conversion

Lignocellulose Conversion Author Vincenza Faraco
ISBN-10 9783642378614
Release 2013-06-12
Pages 199
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Bioethanol has been recognized as a potential alternative to petroleum-derived transportation fuels. Even if cellulosic biomass is less expensive than corn and sugarcane, the higher costs for its conversion make the near-term price of cellulosic ethanol higher than that of corn ethanol and even more than that of sugarcane ethanol. Conventional process for bioethanol production from lignocellulose includes a chemical/physical pre-treatment of lignocellulose for lignin removal, mostly based on auto hydrolysis and acid hydrolysis, followed by saccharification of the free accessible cellulose portions of the biomass. The highest yields of fermentable sugars from cellulose portion are achieved by means of enzymatic hydrolysis, currently carried out using a mix of cellulases from the fungus Trichoderma reesei. Reduction of (hemi)cellulases production costs is strongly required to increase competitiveness of second generation bioethanol production. The final step is the fermentation of sugars obtained from saccharification, typically performed by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The current process is optimized for 6-carbon sugars fermentation, since most of yeasts cannot ferment 5-carbon sugars. Thus, research is aimed at exploring new engineered yeasts abilities to co-ferment 5- and 6-carbon sugars. Among the main routes to advance cellulosic ethanol, consolidate bio-processing, namely direct conversion of biomass into ethanol by a genetically modified microbes, holds tremendous potential to reduce ethanol production costs. Finally, the use of all the components of lignocellulose to produce a large spectra of biobased products is another challenge for further improving competitiveness of second generation bioethanol production, developing a biorefinery.