Elderly Entrepreneurship in an Aging Us Economy

Elderly Entrepreneurship in an Aging Us Economy Author Ting Zhang
ISBN-10 9789812814500
Release 2008
Pages 284
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The study of elderly entrepreneurship and its potential impact on labor, Social Security funds and regional economic growth is of significant importance, particularly for the US economy where population aging coincidentally intersects with the economic shift to a OC knowledge economyOCO. On the one hand, aging, combined with a declining average retirement age, is expected to result in labor force shortages and Social Security fund exhaustion; yet on the other hand, the OC knowledge economyOCO could elevate the value of elderly human capital as the OC knowledge economyOCO is less physically demanding and more human-capital- and knowledge-based.Building on the utility maximization theory, economic growth theories and social theories of aging, this timely book addresses the old-age effect on entrepreneurial propensity; the sources of seniors'' entrepreneurship, including the social and policy variables affecting seniors'' entrepreneurship; and the economic, fiscal and labor impacts of elderly entrepreneurship.



Entrepreneurship and Economic Growth in China

Entrepreneurship and Economic Growth in China Author Ting Zhang
ISBN-10 9789814273367
Release 2013
Pages 337
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This book provides an analysis of the existing economic dynamics and factors contributing to entrepreneurship in China. Featuring contributions from prominent authors such as Zoltan Acs and Jian Gao, it first poses a theoretical question of whether entrepreneurship exists in China and, if so, the extent and form it takes. This book also examines whether the nature of entrepreneurship in China differs from that elsewhere. Following this investigation, empirical tests and analyses focus on important issues such as: What is the special value of entrepreneurship in China? Does entrepreneurship in China drive economic growth like it does in other more market-oriented economies? What is entrepreneurship in China like? What is its history, nature, environment, and what are some of the underlying diversities or challenges it is facing? Assuming entrepreneurship in China is important to economic growth, how can public policy help to enhance the entrepreneurship milieu in China? Finally, based on the empirical findings and potential policy implications, future directions of investigation are suggested.



Rural Aging in 21st Century America

Rural Aging in 21st Century America Author Nina Glasgow
ISBN-10 9789400755673
Release 2012-12-14
Pages 384
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This book investigates sociological, demographic and geographic aspects of aging in rural and nonmetropolitan areas of the United States. Population aging is one of the most important trends of the 20th and 21st centuries, and it is occurring worldwide, especially in more developed countries such as the United States. Population aging is more rapid in rural than urban areas of the U.S. In 2010, 15 percent of the nonmetropolitan compared to 12 percent of the metropolitan population were 65 years of age and older. By definition rural communities have smaller sized populations, and more limited healthcare, transportation and other aging-relevant services than do urban areas. It is thus especially important to study and understand aging in rural environments. Rural Aging in 21st Century America contributes evidence-based, policy-relevant information on rural aging in the U.S. A primary objective of the book is to improve understanding of what makes the experience of rural aging different from aging in urban areas and to increase understanding of the aged change the nature of rural places. The book addresses unique features of rural aging across economic, racial/ethnic, migration and other structures and patterns, all with a focus on debunking myths about rural aging and to emphasize opportunities and challenges that rural places and older people experience.



A Reformulation of Keynesian Economics

A Reformulation of Keynesian Economics Author Jagdish Handa
ISBN-10 9789814616119
Release 2015-07-16
Pages 572
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John Maynard Keynes' response to the extreme distress of the early years of the Great Depression produced The General Theory, which represented an overhaul of the macroeconomics inherited by his generation. The economic upheaval (including the Great Recession) since 2008 raised serious doubts about the relevance of economics as it had come to be formulated and taught by the beginning of this century. While numerous books and articles have addressed the current distress of economies through contributions to specific parts of macroeconomics, none has offered an attractive alternative that represents a general overhaul of the macroeconomics inherited by the current generation. A Reformulation of Keynesian Economic does so, and provides a modern integrated version of macroeconomics for the modern economies as they function. This book's many insights and innovations include: discarding the classical concepts of the long run and the short run in favour of the behavioural concepts of the planning period (the long term) and the short term (the operating period); discarding the exogenous production function in favour of an endogenous one; distinguishing between the short-term and the long-term production functions; replacing the dynamic stochastic notional general equilibrium (DSGE) approach for the short term by a more general one that permits effective equilibrium and disequilibrium in specific markets; and, a reformulation of the financial sector analysis and of the Keynesian business cycle theory. This thoroughgoing revision of macroeconomics is must-read for macroeconomists, policymakers and graduate students. It can even be used as a textbook by instructors who question the inherited orthodoxy built around the DSGE model and are looking for an alternative formulation of macroeconomics. Contents:IntroductionReformulating Macroeconomics: Main ElementsThe Production SectorThe Labor Market, Employment and WagesThe Demand for Commodities and the Supply of LaborThe Financial Sector in the Financial EconomyA Reformulation of the Expectations Hypothesis for Keynesian EconomicsA Reformulation of the Keynesian Business Cycle ApproachSummary and Conclusions Readership: Researchers in macroeconomics and policy makers; graduate and advanced undergraduate students who wish to have an overview of macroeconomic theory relevant to modern economies. Key Features:The book updates macroeconomic modelling for modern financial (as against merely barter or monetary) economiesOffers insights and innovations which are thought-provoking, and constitute an invitation to researchers to re-think macroeconomics, starting by rebuilding its foundations along more behavioural linesIntegrates financial capital into the analysis of production both in terms of the technology/equipment that the firm chooses over its planning period and the production levels in each of its operating periodsKeywords:Macroeconomics;Keynesian Economics;Monetary Economics



Population Aging and the Generational Economy

Population Aging and the Generational Economy Author Ronald Demos Lee
ISBN-10 9780857930583
Release 2011-01-01
Pages 616
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'While there already exists a crowded body of publications addressing the effect of an aging population on the economy, this monograph is most outstanding in presenting a global, in-depth analysis of the implications thereby generated for 23 developed and developing countries. . . Scholars, researchers, and practitioners everywhere will benefit immensely from this comprehensive work.' – H.I. Liebling, Choice 'Ron Lee and Andrew Mason's Population Aging and the Generational Economy is a demographic and economic tour-de-force. Their collaborative, intercontinental. . . study of aging, consumption, labor supply, saving, and private and public transfers is the place to go to understand global aging and its myriad and significant economic challenges and opportunities.' – Laurence Kotlikoff, Boston University, US 'The culmination of. . . work by Lee, Mason, and their collaborators from around the world to extend Samuelson's framework to accommodate realistic demography, empirical measurement of age-specific earnings, consumption, tax payments, and benefit receipts, the studies. . . demonstrate the power of this integrated economic-demographic framework to advance our understanding of critical public policy challenges faced by countries at different stages of demographic transition and population aging.' – Robert Willis, University of Michigan, US 'Lee and Mason have done scholars and practitioners a magnificent service by undertaking this comprehensive, compelling, and supremely innovative examination of the economic consequences of changes in population age structure. The book is a bona fide crystal ball. It will be a MUST READ for the next decade!' – David Bloom, Harvard School of Public Health, US 'Population Aging and the Generational Economy provides an encompassing account of what we know about population aging and the impact that this process will have on our economies. It does not confine itself to the advanced industrial countries, where aging has already been largely studied, but adopts a truly global perspective. I am sure it will become a key reference for researchers, students and those involved in policy-making in areas that are affected by population aging.' – Giuliano Bonoli, Swiss Graduate School of Public Administration (IDHEAP), Switzerland Over coming decades, changes in population age structure will have profound implications for the macroeconomy, influencing economic growth, generational equity, human capital, saving and investment, and the sustainability of public and private transfer systems. How the future unfolds will depend on key actors in the generational economy: governments, families, financial institutions, and others. This path-breaking book provides a comprehensive analysis of the macroeconomic effects of changes in population age structure across the globe. The result of a substantial seven-year research project involving over 50 economists and demographers from Africa, Asia, Europe, Latin America, and the United States, the book draws on a new and comprehensive conceptual framework – National Transfer Accounts – to quantify the economic lifecycle and economic flows across generations. It presents comprehensive estimates of both public and private economic flows between generations, and emphasizes the global nature of changes in population age structure that are affecting rich and poor countries alike. This unique and informative book will prove an invaluable reference tool for a wide-ranging audience encompassing students, researchers, and academics in fields such as demography, aging, public finance, economic development, macroeconomics, gerontology, and national income accounting; for policy-makers and advisers focusing on areas of the public sector such as education, health, pensions, other social security programs, tax policy, and public debt; and for policy analysts at international agencies such as the World Bank, the IMF, and the UN.



The Upside of Aging

The Upside of Aging Author Paul Irving
ISBN-10 9781118691908
Release 2014-04-03
Pages 304
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The Upside of Aging: How Long Life Is Changing the World of Health, Work, Innovation, Policy and Purpose explores a titanic shift that will alter every aspect of human existence, from the jobs we hold to the products we buy to the medical care we receive - an aging revolution underway across America and the world. Moving beyond the stereotypes of dependency and decline that have defined older age, The Upside of Aging reveals the vast opportunity and potential of this aging phenomenon, despite significant policy and societal challenges that must be addressed. The book’s chapter authors, all prominent thought-leaders, point to a reinvention and reimagination of our older years that have critical implications for people of all ages. With a positive call to action, the book illuminates the upside for health and wellness, work and volunteerism, economic growth, innovation and education. The authors, like the baby boom generation itself, posit new ways of thinking about aging, as longevity and declining birthrates put the world on track for a mature population of unprecedented size and significance. Among topics they examine are: The emotional intelligence and qualities of the aging brain that science is uncovering, “senior moments” notwithstanding. The new worlds of genomics, medicine and technology that are revolutionizing health care and wellness. The aging population’s massive impact on global markets, with enormous profit potential from an explosion in products and services geared toward mature consumers. New education paradigms to meet the needs and aspirations of older people, and to capitalize on their talents. The benefits that aging workers and entrepreneurs bring to companies, and the crucial role of older people in philanthropy and society. Tools and policies to facilitate financial security for longer and more purposeful lives. Infrastructure and housing changes to create livable cities for all ages, enabling “aging in place” and continuing civic contribution from millions of older adults. The opportunities and potential for intergenerational engagement and collaboration. The Upside of Aging defines a future that differs profoundly from the retirement dreams of our parents and grandparents, one that holds promise and power and bears the stamp of a generation that has changed every stage of life through which it has moved.



The Oxford Handbook of Work and Aging

The Oxford Handbook of Work and Aging Author Jerry W. Hedge
ISBN-10 9780195385052
Release 2012-04-19
Pages 717
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Global aging, technological advances, and financial pressures on health and pension systems are sure to influence future patterns of work and retirement. The Oxford Handbook of Work and Aging offers an international, multi-disciplinary perspective, examining the aging workforce from an individual worker, organization, and societal perspective, and offering direction for where research and application should be focused in the future.



Shock of Gray

Shock of Gray Author Ted Fishman
ISBN-10 1439191131
Release 2010-10-19
Pages 416
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The New York Times bestselling author of China, Inc. reports on the astounding economic and political ramifications of an aging world. The world’s population is rapidly aging—by the year 2030, one billion people will be sixty-five or older. As the ratio of the old to the young grows ever larger, global aging has gone critical: For the first time in history, the number of people over age fifty will be greater than those under age seventeen. Few of us under­stand the resulting massive effects on economies, jobs, and families. Everyone is touched by this issue—parents and children, rich and poor, retirees and workers—and now veteran jour­nalist Ted C. Fishman masterfully and movingly explains how our world is being altered in ways no one ever expected. What happens when too few young people must support older people? How do shrinking families cope with aging loved ones? What happens when countries need millions of young workers but lack them? How do compa­nies compete for young workers? Why, exactly, do they shed old workers? How are entire industries being both created and destroyed by demographic change? How do communities and countries remake themselves for ever-growing populations of older citizens? Who will suffer? Who will benefit? With vivid and witty reporting from American cities and around the world, and through compelling interviews with families, employers, workers, economists, gerontologists, government officials, health-care professionals, corporate executives, and small business owners, Fishman reveals the astonishing and interconnected effects of global aging, and why nations, cultures, and crucial human relationships are changing in this timely, brilliant, and important read.



Inclusive Value Chains

Inclusive Value Chains Author Malcolm Harper
ISBN-10 9789814295000
Release 2010
Pages 312
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Modern'' integrated value chains need not necessarily exclude the smallest producers as this book aims to explain in detail by case studies. The issue is particularly topical in India, where modern retailing has come to the scene only recently and the majority of whose population are still small farmers and artisans. Following a brief introduction to the problem, 14 case studies from India are presented to illustrate how it is being solved in practice. The book also discusses the impact of organized retailing on small-scale traders, and finally analyses the case studies for an overview, with conclusions and learnings drawn from them. Inclusive Value Chains shows by practical examples that it is possible to link the smallest producers of fresh produce, commodities and handicrafts profitably, to modern integrated markets, within the country of origin as well as abroad.



Aging and the Indian Diaspora

Aging and the Indian Diaspora Author Sarah E. Lamb
ISBN-10 9780253003607
Release 2009-07-06
Pages 360
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The proliferation of old age homes and increasing numbers of elderly living alone are startling new phenomena in India. These trends are related to extensive overseas migration and the transnational dispersal of families. In this moving and insightful account, Sarah Lamb shows that older persons are innovative agents in the processes of social-cultural change. Lamb's study probes debates and cultural assumptions in both India and the United States regarding how best to age; the proper social-moral relationship among individuals, genders, families, the market, and the state; and ways of finding meaning in the human life course.



New Aging

New Aging Author Matthias Hollwich
ISBN-10 9780698196445
Release 2016-03-29
Pages 240
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Aging is a gift that we receive with life—and in New Aging, the architect Matthias Hollwich outlines smart, simple ideas to help us experience it that way. New Aging invites us to take everything we associate with aging—the loss of freedom and vitality, the cold and sterile nursing homes, the boredom—and throw it out the window. As an architect, Matthias Hollwich is devoted to finding ways in which we can shape our living spaces and communities to make aging a graceful and fulfilling aspect of our lives. Now he has distilled his research into a collection of simple, visionary principles—brought to life with bright, colorful illustrations—that will inspire you to think creatively about how you can change your habits and environments to suit your evolving needs as you age. With advice ranging from practical design tips for making your home safer and more comfortable to thought-provoking ideas on how we work, relax, and interact with our neighbors, and even how we eat, New Aging will inspire you and your loved ones to live smarter today so you can live better tomorrow. From the Trade Paperback edition.



A Bittersweet Season

A Bittersweet Season Author Jane Gross
ISBN-10 9780307596680
Release 2011-04-26
Pages 368
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Just a few of the vitally important lessons in caring for your aging parent—and yourself—from Jane Gross in A Bittersweet Season As painful as the role reversal between parent and child may be for you, assume it is worse for your mother or father, so take care not to demean or humiliate them. Avoid hospitals and emergency rooms, as well as multiple relocations from home to assisted living facility to nursing home, since all can cause dramatic declines in physical and cognitive well-being among the aged. Do not accept the canard that no decent child sends a parent to a nursing home. Good nursing home care, which supports the entire family, can be vastly superior to the pretty trappings but thin staffing of assisted living or the solitude of being at home, even with round-the-clock help. Important Facts Every state has its own laws, eligibility standards, and licensing requirements for financial, legal, residential, and other matters that affect the elderly, including qualification for Medicare. Assume anything you understand in the state where your parents once lived no longer applies if they move. Many doctors will not accept new Medicare patients, nor are they legally required to do so, especially significant if a parent is moving a long distance to be near family in old age. An adult child with power of attorney can use a parent’s money for legitimate expenses and thus hasten the spend-down to Medicaid eligibility. In other words, you are doing your parent no favor—assuming he or she is likely to exhaust personal financial resources—by paying rent, stocking the refrigerator, buying clothes, or taking him or her to the hairdresser or barber. From the Hardcover edition.



The Economic and Fiscal Consequences of Immigration

The Economic and Fiscal Consequences of Immigration Author National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
ISBN-10 9780309444453
Release 2017-07-13
Pages 642
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The Economic and Fiscal Consequences of Immigration finds that the long-term impact of immigration on the wages and employment of native-born workers overall is very small, and that any negative impacts are most likely to be found for prior immigrants or native-born high school dropouts. First-generation immigrants are more costly to governments than are the native-born, but the second generation are among the strongest fiscal and economic contributors in the U.S. This report concludes that immigration has an overall positive impact on long-run economic growth in the U.S. More than 40 million people living in the United States were born in other countries, and almost an equal number have at least one foreign-born parent. Together, the first generation (foreign-born) and second generation (children of the foreign-born) comprise almost one in four Americans. It comes as little surprise, then, that many U.S. residents view immigration as a major policy issue facing the nation. Not only does immigration affect the environment in which everyone lives, learns, and works, but it also interacts with nearly every policy area of concern, from jobs and the economy, education, and health care, to federal, state, and local government budgets. The changing patterns of immigration and the evolving consequences for American society, institutions, and the economy continue to fuel public policy debate that plays out at the national, state, and local levels. The Economic and Fiscal Consequences of Immigration assesses the impact of dynamic immigration processes on economic and fiscal outcomes for the United States, a major destination of world population movements. This report will be a fundamental resource for policy makers and law makers at the federal, state, and local levels but extends to the general public, nongovernmental organizations, the business community, educational institutions, and the research community.



Chinese Lessons

Chinese Lessons Author John Pomfret
ISBN-10 1429935189
Release 2006-08-08
Pages 336
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"A highly personal, honest, funny and well-informed account of China's hyperactive effort to forget its past and reinvent its future."—The New York Times Book Review As one the first American students admitted to China after the communist revolution, John Pomfret was exposed to a country still emerging from the twin tragedies of the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution. Crammed into a dorm room with seven Chinese men, Pomfret contended with all manner of cultural differences, from too-short beds and roommates intent on glimpsing a white man naked, to the need for cloak-and-dagger efforts to conceal his relationships with Chinese women. Amidst all that, he immersed himself in the remarkable lives of his classmates. Beginning with Pomfret's first day in China, Chinese Lessons takes us down the often torturous paths that brought together the Nanjing University History Class of 1982: Old Wu's father was killed during the Cultural Revolution for the crime of being an intellectual; Book Idiot Zhou labored in the fields for years rather than agree to a Party-arranged marriage; and Little Guan was forced to publicly denounce and humiliate her father. As Pomfret follows his classmates from childhood to adulthood, he examines the effect of China's transition from near-feudal communism to first-world capitalism. The result is an illuminating report from present-day China, and a moving portrait of its extraordinary people.



Boomer Nation

Boomer Nation Author Steve Gillon
ISBN-10 1439137633
Release 2010-05-11
Pages 384
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The Baby Boomers, born between 1946 and 1964, form the single largest demographic spike in American history. Never before or since have birth rates shot up and remained so high so long, with some obvious results: when the Boomers were kids, American culture revolved around families and schools; when they were teenagers, the United States was wracked by rebelliousness; now, as mature adults, the Boomers have led America to become the richest and most powerful country in the history of the world. Boomer Nation will for the first time offer an incisive look into this generation that has redefined America's culture in so many ways, from women's rights and civil rights to religion and politics. Steve Gillon combines firsthand reporting of the lives of six Boomers and their families with a broad look at postwar American history in a fascinating mix of biography and history. His characters, like America itself, reflect a variety of heritages: rich and poor, black and white, immigrant and native born. Their lives take very different paths, yet are shaped by key events and trends in similar ways. They put a human face on the Boomer generation, showing what it means to grow up amid widespread prosperity, with an explosion of democratic autonomy that led to great upheavals but also a renewal from below of our churches, industries, and even the armed forces. The same generation dismissed as pampered and selfish has led a revival of religion in America; the same generation that unleashed the women's movement has also shifted our politics into its most market-oriented, anti-governmental era since Woodrow Wilson. Gillon draws many lessons from this "generational history" -- above all, that the Boomers have transformed America from the security- and authority-seeking culture of their parents to the autonomy- and freedom-rich world of today. When the "greatest generation" was young and not yet at war, it was widely derided as selfish and spoiled. Only in hindsight, long after the sacrifices of World War II, did it gain its sterling reputation. Today, as Boomer America rises to the challenges of the war on terror, we may be on the cusp of a reevaluation of the generation of Presidents Bush and Clinton. That generation has helped make America the richest, strongest nation on the planet, and as Gillon's book proves, it has had more influence on the rest of us than any other group. Boomer Nation is an eye-opening reinterpretation of the past six decades.



No Ordinary Disruption

No Ordinary Disruption Author Richard Dobbs
ISBN-10 9781610397629
Release 2016-08-30
Pages 288
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Our intuition on how the world works could well be wrong. We are surprised when new competitors burst on the scene, or businesses protected by large and deep moats find their defenses easily breached, or vast new markets are conjured from nothing. Trend lines resemble saw-tooth mountain ridges. The world not only feels different. The data tell us it is different. Based on years of research by the directors of the McKinsey Global Institute, No Ordinary Disruption: The Four Forces Breaking all the Trends is a timely and important analysis of how we need to reset our intuition as a result of four forces colliding and transforming the global economy: the rise of emerging markets, the accelerating impact of technology on the natural forces of market competition, an aging world population, and accelerating flows of trade, capital and people. Our intuitions formed during a uniquely benign period for the world economy—often termed the Great Moderation. Asset prices were rising, cost of capital was falling, labour and resources were abundant, and generation after generation was growing up more prosperous than their parents. But the Great Moderation has gone. The cost of capital may rise. The price of everything from grain to steel may become more volatile. The world's labor force could shrink. Individuals, particularly those with low job skills, are at risk of growing up poorer than their parents. What sets No Ordinary Disruption apart is depth of analysis combined with lively writing informed by surprising, memorable insights that enable us to quickly grasp the disruptive forces at work. For evidence of the shift to emerging markets, consider the startling fact that, by 2025, a single regional city in China—Tianjin—will have a GDP equal to that of the Sweden, of that, in the decades ahead, half of the world's economic growth will come from 440 cities including Kumasi in Ghana or Santa Carina in Brazil that most executives today would be hard-pressed to locate on a map. What we are now seeing is no ordinary disruption but the new facts of business life— facts that require executives and leaders at all levels to reset their operating assumptions and management intuition.



Handbook of the Economics of Population Aging

Handbook of the Economics of Population Aging Author John Piggott
ISBN-10 9780444634047
Release 2016-11-21
Pages 1146
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Handbook of the Economics of Population Aging synthesizes the economic literature on aging and the subjects associated with it, including social insurance and healthcare costs, both of which are of interest to policymakers and academics. These volumes, the first of a new subseries in the Handbooks in Economics, describe and analyze scholarship created since the inception of serious attention began in the late 1970s, including information from general economics journals, from various field journals in economics, especially, but not exclusively, those covering labor markets and human resource issues, from interdisciplinary social science and life science journals, and from papers by economists published in journals associated with gerontology, history, sociology, political science, and demography, amongst others. Dissolves the barriers between policymakers and scholars by presenting comprehensive portraits of social and theoretical issues Synthesizes valuable data on the topic from a variety of journals dating back to the late 1970s in a convenient, comprehensive resource Presents diverse perspectives on subjects that can be closely associated with national and regional concerns Offers comprehensive, critical reviews and expositions of the essential aspects of the economics of population aging